Sunday, 3 June 2018
If there is one thing that is constant in the academic library sector it is change; and if there is one factor that has been the greatest agent, or enabler of change, it is the continuous advancement of information and communication technologies (ICT) (ALIA, 2013). As well as offering opportunity an environment of constant change also presents challenges. For example, change presents new opportunities in pedagogy and the creation of new services to meet the evolving needs of the community; and offers challenges to information professionals in reskilling or keeping up with professional development; and the organisation which must be agile to remain relevant and of value to its stakeholders (ALIA, 2013; McRae, 2017).
The advancement of ICT has underpinned the most significant changes in the library sector in modern times and will continue to do so well into the 21st century and beyond (Gunapala, 2017, p. 40). This essay will compare and contrast the greatest challenges for the academic library sector in the next five years. This will be achieved by looking at some of the issues in a number of key areas: evolving information technologies, changing professional contexts, evolving organisational and societal contexts, and relevant legal, ethical and policy frameworks. Finally, a discussion will be provided to examine the role that LIS research may be able to play in meeting these challenges.
The Internet can be defined as a networking technology that connects millions of devices globally enabling fast and convenient transfer of information; it carries information resources and services such as hypertext documents and the World Wide Web (Gunapala, 2017, p. 4; Beal, 2017). The Internet and World Wide Web are not synonymous – they are two separate but related things. In this regard, the World Wide Web is simply, ‘a way of accessing information over the medium that is the Internet…[i]t is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet’ (Beal, 2017).
The rapid advancement of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as the Internet and the World Wide Web is a major factor driving change in academic libraries (Baker, 2014; Campbell, 2006, p. 18). As an evolving information technology, the Internet has had a profound effect on areas such as higher education pedagogy, student learning behaviour, and scholarly communication and publishing (Gordon, 2014; Kling and Callahan, 2003). In some cases, it is argued that due to this technological change, the academic library has lost its role as the “heart of the university” as it is no longer the “gateway to knowledge” (Gunapala, 2017, p. 37). According to Johnson et al (2015, p. 26),
[b]efore the rise of the Internet, libraries were widely perceived as the ultimate gateways to knowledge. They served as central locations to discover new information, compile research, and consult with librarians to find the most helpful resources.
Due to competition from alternative sources of information discovery, such as the Internet, the perception of academic libraries as portals for information, and of librarians as gatekeepers of knowledge, is declining as the library is no longer seen as the first place that users go to find information (Anyangwe, 2012; Brabazon, 2014, p. 191). In other words, academic libraries are becoming disintermediated, especially those libraries that have defined their value in terms of the collections they hold rather than the relevance of their services (Sandler, 2006, p. 241).
According to Brabazon (2014, p. 192), disintermediation ‘is a characteristic of peer-to-peer networks, where links are removed from the traditional supply and distribution chain.’ For librarians, this phenomenon is apparent in changes around collection development, the acquisition of large publisher packages, such as the ‘big deal’, the open-access movement, and Google Scholar – all of these changes are due to ‘the removal of the intermediary from the process…creating a direct link between, variously, the producers or suppliers of academic texts and their consumers – or readers’ (Ball, 2012, p. 2).
The shift from “just in case” to “just in time” collection development is an example of where the librarian is removed from the process of selection and acquisition. Historically, it was the practice of academic libraries to build their collections around content that their users might need to use – in other words, material was acquired “just in case” (Gunapala, 2017, p. 221). Whilst this model served libraries well by assuring users access to an exhaustive collection of diverse material, it engendered a false sense of value where the library was evaluated in terms of the amount of material it collected, and ultimately, failed due to ‘unsustainable increases to costs and reduced acquisitions budgets, but more importantly a variety of factors including technological advances’ (Arougheti, 2014). In reaction to this failure, and due to static or declining budgets, reduced shelving space, along with advances in online publishing and other ICT technologies, libraries have had to streamline their collection development policies by adopting a use-driven or “just in case” model (Arougheti, 2014).
The advent of use-driven acquisition (UDA) models, such as demand-driven acquisition (DDA), also known as patron-driven acquisition (PDA), and evidence-based acquisition (EBA) have brought about significant changes in collection development practices for academic libraries particularly in the acquisition of eBooks (Levine-Clark, 2011, p. xiii). In a UDA model, the choice of selection is put in the hands of the user by providing access to a large pool of online content that can be discovered and accessed through the library. The library only acquires the content that is used, which when compared to usage of content acquired “just in time”, provides a better return on investment for the library (Sharp & Thompson, 2010).
The disintermediation of librarians from the practice of selection presents challenges and opportunities around professional knowledge and the role of academic librarianship. Driven by changes in ICT and the research environment, the role of the academic librarian has gone through significant change (Toohey, 2016). No longer focusing on collection development, academic librarianship has had to evolve (and will need to continue doing so) to align with the strategic needs of the institution by supporting areas such as research and scholarly communication (Sewell & Kingsley, 2016).
An ongoing challenge for libraries is the increasing power and monopoly of publishers in scholarly publishing, which has had a detrimental effect on libraries by restricting choice and increasing prices (Tillack, 2013). For example, with the ‘big deal’, publishers provide libraries with ‘an aggregation, package, or bundle of online journals, often the entire collection of a commercial publisher, licensed to libraries for a fixed period of years, via a contract negotiated at a standard price’ (Cleary, 2009, p. 364). The problem with these ‘big deals’ is that libraries are usually locked into these arrangements on multi-year deals, which increase in price year on year above the rate of inflation, and above any increases in budget, and the library is restricted from cancelling, or unbundling individual titles (Tillack, 2014, p. 211). Whilst the model is able to deliver a large amount of content for users, in tying up a large proportion of the budget, ‘big deals’ restrict collection development due to eroding the library’s ability to purchase new resources and formats (Tillack, 2014, p. 215).
Academic libraries and the scholarly community have responded to the monopolistic practices of publishers in two ways: cancellation of ‘big deals’ and open access publishing. In the first instance, what some years ago would have seemed impossible, academic institutions around the world are holding publishers to account and taking the bold move to cancel their large publisher packages tied up in ‘big deals’ (Anderson, 2017). As well as cancelling for the reasons cited above (price, restrictive collection development, etc), libraries are taking publishers to task over their open access policies.
The ongoing development of ICT, and attitudes in society towards openness, have created high expectations for improvements in scholarly communication and scholarly publishing. From the 1990s, it was envisaged that electronic publishing of scholarly content would make resources accessible to users anytime, anywhere, and due to the economies of scale and production efficiencies, at a cheaper cost in a wide variety of formats. In particular, there was great expectation that scholarly publishing would be ‘more open and democratic and the papers available to a wider audience’ (Kennan, Cecez-Kecmanovic & Underwood, 2010, p. 5).
This sociotechnical change has provided opportunity for libraries to challenge the hegemony of publishers through the Open Access (OA) movement. In the Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), the Internet was cited as a new technology with the potential to provide unrestricted access that is free of cost to peer-reviewed journal literature. It noted,
[r]emoving access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge (Budapest Open Access Initiative, 2002).
Researchers can publish their work open access by either publishing their peer-reviewed work in a journal that provides open access (the gold model), or by depositing into an institutional repository (the green model), which is free to access and most likely governed by a mandate (AOASG, 2018). The ongoing challenge for libraries will be to monitor the various OA models, which seem to keep changing in the favour of publishers (for example, hybrid or Gold), as well as assess the real economic benefits in terms of whether OA is having a positive impact on subscription prices for libraries.
With advances to ICT also come challenges around legal, ethical and policy frameworks. In a presentation aptly titled, “How to keep your Vice-Chancellor out of jail”, which was presented at the 2017 THETA Conference, the author sounds a warning to academic institutions on the risks of data breaches and the consequences of such events (CAUDIT, 2018). Whilst an important issue at the time, due to the recent legal changes in the European Union (EU) in the regulation of data protection and privacy through the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the issue of digital privacy is now more than ever a critical challenge for all academic libraries, which will continue into the future.
In a briefing on the impact of GDPR, the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) noted that, ‘it is very important for libraries and archives to…comply with the new regulation, which puts a positive obligation on organisations to responsibly protect and use information that identifies a living person’ (IFLA, 2018, p. 1). In terms of rights to library patrons, they will have the right to know what personal information is held by the library, and its purpose, and be able to request data to be removed or deleted from library systems (IFLA, 2018. p. 2).
Whilst GDPR only affects EU citizens, it is a new model for regulation of data privacy, which may become a template for other nations to follow. The urgency to address privacy both on a national and global scale will force libraries to address moral issues around the use of personal information. For example, in the United States, in the case of learning analytics, which is a form of education data mining, it is argued that the practice of data mining runs counter to ethical principles in the American Library Association’s Code of Ethics (Jones & Salo, 2018, p. 305).
The LIS research community can play an important role in meeting current and future challenges facing the academic library sector. According to Abbas et al (2016, p. 96), ‘the role of research is to help us understand complex phenomena and to inform practice and LIS education.’ Research can be a positive force in promoting the profession ‘by enriching professional knowledge, demonstrating the reputation and value of the profession, and having an increasing impact on society’ (Nguyen & Hider, 2018, p. 5).
However, to achieve this, information professionals working in academic libraries will need to close the gap between theory and practice; be supported by their employers to encourage engagement with the research community; and ultimately, develop a research culture that will be necessary for success (Nguyen & Hider, 2018). Professional associations such as the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) and similar organisations can play a role in cultivating the necessary research culture. For example, Library and Information Science Research Australia (LISRA) is a research project funded by the Australian Research Council, which aims to encourage and enable research culture and practice within Australia’s library and information profession (LISRA, 2018). With involvement from ALIA, and other key project partners, LISRA is a step in the right direction and will be a key enabler in meeting the challenges of the future.
This essay has provided a discussion on the challenges facing the academic library sector in the next five years. Due to the continuous evolution of ICT technologies, academic libraries are challenged to adapt and evolve in a highly complex and shifting environment. To understand the challenges of the future it has been necessary to examine a range of contexts including technological, social, professional and policy frameworks, both past and present. Due to the ubiquitous nature of online information, the library may become further disintermediated from its users, which will force academic libraries to evaluate their services, and ultimately, the value they bring to their stakeholders. Finally, the profession will need to close the gap between theory and practice, and with the support of professional organisations, cultivate a research culture that will be necessary if the sector is to meet the challenges of the next five years.
Abbas, J., Garnar, M., Kennedy, M., Kenney, B., Luo, L., & Stephens, M. (2016). Bridging the divide: Exploring LIS research and practice in a panel discussion at the ALISE ’16 conference. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 57(2), 94–100. doi:10.1080/24750158.2018.1430412
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Tillack, T. J. (2013). A licence to print money? The high cost of academic publishing in Australia [Blog post]. Retrieved from
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Due to the ongoing shifts in pedagogy in higher education, and technological developments both in society, and more directly in information organisations, the academic library sector has been undergoing constant change. The following report provides a discussion around the academic library sector and the challenges facing information professionals that work in academic libraries. This will be achieved by looking at how this type of information organisation has developed through history and the current environment; the types of knowledge managed and the types of users who access resources and services in academic libraries; as well as the types of professional roles including the knowledge, skills and attributes relevant to information professionals working in academic libraries.
An academic library can be defined as a library that serves the information needs of a parent institution through supporting the teaching and research needs of students, staff and researchers (Badaru, 2012, p. 1). Academic libraries are, therefore, essential to the mission of the university and are often cited as the “heart of the university” (Stemmer & Mahan, 2016, p. 359). It is the mission of the academic library to ‘support the teaching, learning and (where appropriate) research activities of their parent institution’ (Horn et al, 2009, p. 243). For example, this can be seen when looking at University of Queensland Library’s mission statement, which states,
The Library is integral to learning, discovery and engagement at The University of Queensland. We provide access to high quality scholarly information resources, client focused services, and physical and online spaces that support teaching and research at the University. (UQ, 2018).
The history of academic libraries is intimately related to the history of universities, which by extension has been 'a reflection of the development of higher education throughout the world' (Shiflett, 2015, p. 5). Whilst there were Indian and Islamic centres of learning throughout pre-medieval times, the modern form of the university started to emerge from medieval Europe in the 12th century, and with it the early beginnings of academic libraries (Shiflett, 2015, p. 8). At first, librarians were not needed because students generally rented their books from bookshops, which were mostly transcriptions of lectures (Budd, 2012, p. 16). With the advent of printing, and the expansion of the curriculum due to rising levels of literacy and interest in scholarship, more books became available than could be included in the curriculum, ‘so the library became more important as the source of supplementary reading and individual study’ (Budd, 2012, p. 17).
As universities shifted from a concentration on classical education for religious improvement, to a more secular elective system with new choices in science and technical subjects, a modern view emerged that ‘any subject was appropriate for study in a university’ (Shiflett, 2015, p. 10). With the diversification of subject offerings academic libraries were in greater demand, which required full-time staff to care for the collections. This was before the advent of a formal education for librarianship, so these early academic librarians ‘learned the techniques of their profession by trial and error’ and ‘by an informal system of apprenticeship’ (Shiflett, 2015, p.11).
In the United States, early formal librarianship training was modelled on Dewey’s model of librarianship, which was more suited to the schools and programs of library training for the promotion of public libraries, so wasn’t appropriate as an education program to support the needs of the emerging profession (Shiflett, 2015, p.11). These early academic librarians also faced a status problem due to the perception that they were hired simply to manage the masses of books and not for any ‘inherent recognition of librarianship as a scholarly activity in and of itself’ (Shiflett, 2015, p. 13). Over time, the profession started to become recognised as an integral part of the educational process and the role has
evolved with the needs of the institutions and with the evolution of librarianship as a distinct occupation with a set of professional ideals, objectives, and commitments within the academic community (Shiflett, 2015, p. 5).
Whilst academic libraries were initially concerned with books and journals, due to changes in technology, the very nature of collections in academic libraries has under gone considerable change, which has affected the types of media, formats and technologies of communication (Budd, 2012, p. 199). Today, most academic libraries are “hybrid libraries,” providing access to both print and electronic resources. This is because not all resources are available electronically and not all users are able to access information online (Spiro and Henry, 2010, p.9). This mix of media, formats and technology can be seen by looking at the collection development policies of academic libraries.
A collection development policy or statement is the foundation for collection development as it provides a building block for good selection (Johnson, 2005, p. 109). For example, the QUT Library Collection Development Manual outlines
the current principles and practices that inform the selection, maintenance, access, assessment or return on investment, and deselection of information resources (electronic and print) across all branch libraries and made available via thewebsite (QUT Library, 2015a).
According to Johnson (2005, p. 108), ‘all selection decisions begin with consideration of the user community and the long-term mission, goals, and priorities of the library and its parent body.’ Taking QUT as an example, the collection development manual clearly states who the users are in its policy statement on clients:
The Library’s collections (print and electronic) are intended to meet the information needs of primary clients. The primary clients of QUT Library are QUT staff and students (QUT Library, 2015b).
In this regard, the primary clients include undergraduate students, postgraduate coursework students, research students, staff (including professional and academic), and other persons affiliated with the institution (QUT Library, 2015b).
University students as a user group are generally split between undergraduate and postgraduate researchers, with each having its own particular user needs when it comes to searching for information. As a whole, university students search for information in highly complex environments, are required to navigate multiple information systems, as well as use a large range of information sources (Willson and Given, 2014). There is also a difference in the information needs between undergraduate and postgraduate students. Postgraduate students have an interest in their own research, so are expected to know their discipline and be better able to engage in the research process; as opposed to undergraduates who generally have their information needs imposed on them by their instructors, so have not selected the topic and may know little of the discipline (Willson and Given, 2014).
Undergraduates also struggle with the complexity of search tools in the library and their distinctive uses. The information-seeking behaviour of today’s university students is strongly influenced by online search engines, for example, Google (Mi and Weng, 2008). A survey conducted by OCLC in 2010, revealed that 83% of college students (across all regions in the study) begin their search for information with online search engines (OCLC, 2010).
Academic libraries are generally organised along hierarchical lines with a University Librarian (or Director) responsible for strategic leadership and management. Traditionally, the organisation was split between client services and technical services, but with the dramatic changes as a result of developments in technology, also include added functions, such as collection management, systems, personnel, finance, etc (Budd, 2012, p. 107).
In recent times, driven by the impact of digital technologies and changes in the research environment, the role of the academic librarian has gone through signification change. For example, at Griffith University,
the academic librarian role has been slowly redefined over the last decade primarily due to the exponential growth and impact of technologies and to Griffith’s changing strategic directions and business priorities (Toohey, 2016, p. 1).
So that the library remained relevant to the changing needs of the academic community, the role of discipline librarian was created. However, whereas previous roles required skills around collection management, reference services and information literacy, the new role demanded a different set of skills such as, consultancy, partnering, data management, advocacy around scholarly communications including open access and open data, and research support (Toohey, 2016, p. 1). With researchers under constant pressure to share their work, scholarly communication has become a core function of research support, which has required a knowledge of advocacy and outreach techniques, and an understanding of issues such as publishing business models and altmetrics (Sewell & Kingsley, 2016).
In order to survive in such a dynamic environment, it is essential for academic librarians to demonstrate ‘flexibility and nimbleness…to stay abreast of [these] developments, and an awareness of skills gaps is essential’ (Rubinowski, Adams, & Pilz, 2016, p. 3). The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) is ‘the national professional organisation for the Australian library and information services sector’ (ALIA, 2018a). As a professional organisation, ALIA promotes excellence in the LIS sector by supporting members with ongoing learning and professional development through the ALIA PD scheme (ALIA, 2018b). Related to continuing professional development (CPD), and integral to the ALIA PD scheme, is reflective practice – it’s through reflection that librarians can identify and acknowledge any skill gaps so that they can ‘deliver an effective and accountable service, which is responsive to complexity (ALIA, 2013; Rubinowski et al, 2016, p. 3).
To guide professional practice and the skills required of information professionals, ALIA, in collaboration with two other professional bodies, collaborated on the development of the Foundation Knowledge, Skills and Attributes relevant to Information Professionals working in Archives, Libraries and Record Management (ALIA, 2015). These are broken down into the following areas with further granular description under each heading:
· Knowledge of the broad context of the information environment
· The purposes and characteristics of information architecture, organisation and access
· Processes and practices, relating to information management
· Information sources, services and products
· General employability skills
Whilst the role of academic librarian requires a broad range of skills, the areas of competency most likely to be applied by this type of information professional include (ALIA 2015):
· Understand information administration, migration, retrieval, restructuring, manipulation and presentation
· Identify user requirements and the processes that will meet them, including designing, implementing and evaluating systems and tools, introducing enabling technologies, developing and applying metadata
· Enable information access and use through systematic and user-centred description, categorisation, digitisation, storage, preservation and retrieval
· Provide user services, reference and outreach programs to support accessibility in multiple environments
· Facilitate the acquisition, licensing or creation of information in a range of media and formats
· Use research skills to provide appropriate information to users
In addition, generic skills and attributes should include, project management, critical, reflective, and creative thinking, problem-solving, business analysis and audit, information and statistical analysis, manipulation and dissemination, marketing, and partnership and alliance-building (ALIA 2015).
This report has provided an overview of academic libraries and the role of the academic librarian in this sector. Whilst academic libraries have gone through dramatic change due to changes in technology, they must continue to perform their traditional roles of organising, cataloguing and storing information for their users, while at the same time adapt to the demands of new service areas such as supporting research and data management. To remain relevant to their users and the academic community at large, academic librarians will need to continuously reflect on their practice and be open to constantly upgrading and learning new skills. It is also likely that as academic libraries seek ways to collaborate and partner with faculty in the research process, new staff may be hired without a traditional LIS education, but who bring new skills and perspectives into the organisation.
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